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Memo for Public Health Emergency

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Memo for Public Health Emergency (125 points)
For this Memo, research the COVID-19 Pandemic and indicate any international advice provided for mass gatherings during the pandemic.
Imagine you have been asked to draft a memo to help the country to safely proceed with Hajj.
Indicate the advice provided by the World Health Organization in safely engaging in a mass gathering in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a pandemic.
Analyze the ethical implications of this advice.
Detail how this advice was prescribed into law or practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Indicate the healthcare organization or other entities that heed this advice; and
Examine the outcomes of these requirements
Your memo should meet the following structural requirements:
Two to three pages in length, not including the cover sheet and reference page.
Formatted according to APA 7th edition and Saudi Electronic University writing standards
Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of four scholarly articles.
Two of these sources may be from the class readings, textbook, or lectures, but the other two must be external. The Saudi Digital Library is a good place to find these references.
You are strongly encouraged to submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check Student Guide.

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Competing needs arise within any organization as employees seek to meet their targets and leaders seek to meet company goals. As a leader, successful management of these goals requires establishing priorities and allocating resources accordingly.

Within a healthcare setting, the needs of the workforce, resources, and patients are often in conflict. Mandatory overtime, implementation of staffing ratios, use of unlicensed assisting personnel, and employer reductions of education benefits are examples of practices that might lead to conflicting needs in practice.

Leaders can contribute to both the problem and the solution through policies, action, and inaction. In this Assignment, you will further develop the white paper you began work on in Module 1 by addressing competing needs within your organization.


Note: Review all, with special attention to “Provision 6” (pp. 23–26).

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.


To Prepare:

  • Review the national healthcare issue/stressor you examined in your Assignment for Module 1, and review the analysis of the healthcare issue/stressor you selected.
  • Identify and review two evidence-based scholarly resources that focus on proposed policies/practices to apply to your selected healthcare issue/stressor.
  • Reflect on the feedback you received from your colleagues on your Discussion post regarding competing needs.

The Assignment (1-2 pages):

Developing Organizational Policies and Practices

Add a section to the 2-3 page paper you submitted in Module 1. The new section should address the following in 1-2 pages:

  • Identify and describe at least two competing needs impacting your selected healthcare issue/stressor.
  • Describe a relevant policy or practice in your organization that may influence your selected healthcare issue/stressor.
  • Critique the policy for ethical considerations, and explain the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics.
  • Recommend one or more policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients, while addressing any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Cite evidence that informs the healthcare issue/stressor and/or the policies, and provide two scholarly resources in support of your policy or practice recommendations.
  • Due to the nature of this assignment, your instructor may require more than 7 days to provide you with quality feedback.


Submit your revised paper.


Before submitting your final assignment, you can check your draft for authenticity. To check your draft, access the Turnitin Drafts from the Start Here area.

  1. To submit your completed assignment, save your Assignment as WK3Assgn_LastName_Firstinitial
  2. Then, click on Start Assignment near the top of the page.
  3. Next, click on Upload File and select Submit Assignment for review.



Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAdd a section to the 2-3 page paper you submitted in Module 1. For this assignment, in 1-2 pages, address the following: · Identify and describe at least two competing needs impacting your selected healthcare issue/stressor.
25 to >22.0 pts


The response accurately and thoroughly identifies and describes at least two competing needs impacting the healthcare issue/stressor selected.

22 to >19.0 pts


The response identifies and describes at least two competing needs impacting the healthcare issue/stressor selected.

19 to >17.0 pts


The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies and describes two competing needs impacting the healthcare issue/stressor selected.

17 to >0 pts


The response vaguely or inaccurately identifies and describes one competing need impacting the healthcare issue/stressor selected or response is missing.

25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome· Describe a relevant policy or practice in your organization that may influence your selected healthcare issue/stressor. · Critique the policy for ethical considerations and explain the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics.
30 to >26.0 pts


The response accurately and thoroughly describes a relevant policy or practice in the organization that may influence the healthcare issue/stressor selected. …The response accurately and thoroughly critiques the policy for ethical considerations and explains in detail the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics.

26 to >23.0 pts


The response accurately describes a relevant policy or practice in the organization that may influence the healthcare issue/stressor selected. …The response accurately critiques the policy for ethical considerations and explains the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics.

23 to >20.0 pts


The response is vague or inaccurate in describing a relevant policy or practice in the organization that may influence the healthcare issue/stressor selected. …The response vaguely or inaccurately critiques the policy for ethical considerations and explains the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics.

20 to >0 pts


The response is vague and inaccurate in describing a relevant policy or practice in an organization that may influence the healthcare issue/stressor selected or response is missing. …The response vaguely and inaccurately critiques the policy for ethical considerations and vaguely and inaccurately explains the policy’s strengths and challenges in promoting ethics or response is missing.

30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome· Recommend one or more policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients while addressing any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies. Be specific and provide examples.
25 to >22.0 pts


The response provides one or more accurate, clear, and thorough recommendations for policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients while addressing any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies. …Specific and accurate examples are provided.

22 to >19.0 pts


The response provides one or more recommendations for policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients while addressing any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies. …Specific examples are provided.

19 to >17.0 pts


The response vaguely or inaccurately provides one recommendation for policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients while addressing any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies. …One example is provided.

17 to >0 pts


The response vaguely and inaccurately provides one recommendation for policy or practice changes designed to balance the competing needs of resources, workers, and patients; response vaguely addresses any ethical shortcomings of the existing policies or response is missing. …Examples are missing.

25 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResource Synthesis
5 to >4.0 pts


Using proper in-text citations, the response fully integrates at least 2 outside resources and 2 or 3 course-specific resources.

4 to >3.0 pts


Using proper in-text citations, the response fully integrates at least 2 outside resources and 1 course-specific resource.

3 to >2.0 pts


Using proper in-text citations, the response minimally integrates outside and course-specific resources.

2 to >0 pts


The response does not integrate outside and course-specific resources or no in-text citations are used.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting—Paragraph Development and Organization:Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused—neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided, which delineates all required criteria.
5 to >4.0 pts


Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. …A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided, which delineates all required criteria.

4 to >3.0 pts


Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. …Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated but are brief and not descriptive.

3 to >2.0 pts


Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60–79% of the time. …Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic.

2 to >0 pts


Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time. …No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion is provided.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting—English Writing Standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation.
5 to >4.0 pts


Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 to >3.0 pts


Contains a few (one or two) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3 to >2.0 pts


Contains several (three or four) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

2 to >0 pts


Contains many (five or more) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

5 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWritten Expression and Formatting: The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
5 to >4.0 pts


Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 to >3.0 pts


Contains a few (one or two) APA format errors.

3 to >2.0 pts


Contains several (three or four) APA format errors.

2 to >0 pts


Contains many (five or more) APA format errors.

5 pts
Total Points: 100



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Part 1

Nowadays, religion is being introduced in many disciplines. For example, some Christian values are being used in nursing, psychology among many other fields. Through the religious knowledge, one can analyze if various sectors are performing accordingly. The base of the Catholic faith stands as imperative teachings that teach many on Christian values. In this period of the American politics, the Catholic values are being violated by the presidential candidates in their talk and deeds. For example, Trump has been accused of disrespecting women and using vulgar language towards them. Clinton, on the other hand, has been accused of lying about her email deletion saga. After watching the two full debates on YouTube, many questions arise about the presidential candidates’ motives. The first debate was held on September 26, 2016, while the second one was held on 9th October 2016. From the way the candidates explains various question from the moderators and the audience, there is enough evidence that the debates violate the Catholic/Christian values and beliefs. The main aim of this paper is to review the last two debates and examine how the debates violated the Catholic /Christian values and beliefs through the theological lens.

There are many Christian values that were violated during the first and the second debate, but this paper will focus on a couple of them. Some of the Christian/Catholic values/beliefs that were violated include justice, love, caring for the environment, equality before God, honesty, helping the poor among others. On equality, Trump seems to believe that men are superior to women.  Trump argues that Clinton lacks the stamina, the below is what Trump says about Clinton She doesn’t have the stamina; I said she doesn’t have the stamina. And I don’t believe she does have the stamina. To be president of this country, you need tremendous stamina. Disrespect is also evident where Trump is asked concerning his bragging rumors about groping women, Trump respond by saying that I didn’t say that at all. I don’t think you understood what was — this was locker room talk.

The lack of strategies to protecting the rights of the voiceless lacks in these debates. According to Trump, America has been helping many countries that he won’t be in support of. When it comes to caring for the environment, Trump is against the EPA work of regulating energy production. Trump argues that the Environmental Protection Agency is killing these energy companies. Trump seems to be for coal for energy production that is highly harmful.  Even though he supports the production of energy through wind and solar, he thinks that energy won’t be enough and EPA needs to loosen their restrictions.

Caring for the poor is another element that is not much focused in these debates. The two candidates argue about the Obama care effectiveness an initiative that was implemented to help the poor where Clinton supports it by Trump dislike it. Trump argues that he will help the inner city people but his policies seem to favor the rich in the society. When it comes to the common good of the Americans, the two candidate’s views seems to be centered on their selfish needs rather than the citizen’s. When Trump was asked about the past video about women that he had released about a week ago, he brings up other issues to confuse the moderator. According to Trump, he respects women more than any other person in the world that indicates dishonesty.  Clinton also lies about the email saga next part of the paper analyzes the above mention issues in details comparing them to the Catholic/Christian faith. From the above review, it is evident that there are many Catholic beliefs and values being violated in these debates. The next part of the paper will reflect on what has been said above in the light of the religious sensibilities.

Part 2

When it comes to equality before God, the Catholic faith believes that every person is equal to God. What one analyzes in the first debate is that Trump believes that men are superior to women. Even though he argues that he has much respect for women, it is quite visible that he doesn’t since he keeps on disrupting Clinton. He goes on to argue that Clinton does not have the stamina to be the president[1]. During the second debate, Ken Bon asked the candidates about the steps they are going to take to ensure the methods of energy production remain environmentally friendly. Trump argued that he’s for wind, solar among other energy production methods. However, he also notes that the country needs more energy than what the wind and solar can provide. Clinton, on the other hand, argues that she has a comprehensive policy regarding environmentally friendly energy production.  According to the Catholic beliefs, people should take care of the creation. With the policies that the two have, the environmental state of the country will be at risk.

Honesty is another value highly valued by Christians. In Proverbs 12:22, the Bible states that “Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord”[2]. In this verse, the Catholics are encouraged to speak the truth always despite the situation they find themselves in. the two candidates regularly lies when they are asked about emails and women groping saga. Respect lacks in these debates. In 1 Peter 2:17, the word notes that “Show proper respect to everyone, love the family of believers, fear God, honor the emperor”. Trump’s views towards women are against this value. He expects women to be laid back because they lack stamina.  Selflessness is also an imperative value that is highly embraced by Catholics. In many ways, the Catholics are taught to be selfless and consider others. In these debates, there are many selfish motives going on. For example, the two candidates are out there to tarnish each other’s names so that they can gain the votes.

Another value that the Catholics have is the concern for the poor. Caring for the poor and voiceless is rooted in claims of justice. In many ways, one becomes faithful by caring for the others. Christians are urged to share what they have with the poor in the society. The Israelites fell into temptations after they neglected the poor. When one analyzes the two debates, Trump policies are directed to helping the rich get richer. Clinton and Trump should focus on justice and come with policies that will ensure that the many evils in the society are reduced. When Trump is talking about the inner cities during the first debate, he argues that the inner cities are dangerous[3]. However, instead of coming up with a solution, he blames Clinton for the mess.

Peace is a very important belief in Catholic faith. Catholics should live in peace with everybody. In the debates, peace value is violated when the two candidates keeps on hailing cruel words at each other. Trump also thinks that America should not sign any other peace treaties. He argues that the peace deals that Clinton has been sighing have not worked. Another value that was violated is love. According to the Catholic teachings, there is no way one can love God if they don’t have love others. The remarks by the two candidates don’t show love. Jesus was compassionate towards the people that were isolated in the community. He associated with the lepers, poor people, and prostitutes among other outcasts. This is a type of love that is not anywhere new the two debates.

Part 3

Using the theological values beliefs that I have been learning, analyzing the two candidates have been easy. From the class notes, I have come to understand the values that Catholics are supposed to have. For example, the bible instructs the Christians to have love, care for each other, have respect and care for the environment. Through the theological lessons, I have come to understand that justice is a responsibility of every faith filled person. In the book of Exodus, God revels himself to be the opposer of the injustice. Injustice is regarded as an enemy of God. Since we are collaborating with the presidential candidates to ensure that they win the elections, there should be an agreeable covenant. In the covenant between God and the Israelites, God promised the people that he will be their God and they will be their people. In this debate, the two candidates seem to have few attainable goals that they are promising the public. When one analyzes the two debates, the two candidates are only pursuing power without minding the welfare of the citizens. Since the two have publicly said that they are Christians previously, they should ensure that they highly uphold the Catholic beliefs and values.

In summary, the two candidates are violating many of the Catholics beliefs and values in many ways. There are many instances when the two are disrespectful, not compassionate to the poor, unkind, injustice, rude, selfish, and uncaring among other negative attitudes towards the citizens. In this period of the American politics, the Christian beliefs and values are being violated by the presidential candidates by their talk. From the way the candidates explains issues asked by moderators and the audience, there is enough evidence that the debates violate the Catholic/Christian values and beliefs.




RBC Broadcasting Network. Donald Trump vs Hillary Clinton-First Presidential Debate 2016-Hofstra University, 1:36:42, October 2016.

NBC News. The second Presidential Debate: Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump (Full Debate), 1:32:47, October 2016,

The Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984.

[1] RBC Broadcasting Network. Donald Trump vs Hillary Clinton-First Presidential Debate 2016-Hofstra University, October 2016.

[2] The Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984.


[3] RBC Broadcasting Network. Donald Trump vs Hillary Clinton-First Presidential Debate 2016-Hofstra University, October 2016.

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How useful the Media is in the Society


Media is important in the society. The term media is derived from the word medium which means a mode. Media is considered as a tool that is used to pass information to a mass audience (Christians, 2009). Traditionally, media was available in only two forms; newspaper and magazine. However, the invention of technology gave rise to other forms such as the television, radio, cinemas and the internet (Hallin, 2004). Media serves a number of roles in the society some of which are obvious while other roles are not clearly identified by many people. A lot of people are still debating on whether the media is serving a positive role in the society or a negative role. Some people believe that it has negatively affected the society in a number of ways but many people still consider it as a positive tool within the society. Media is a significant tool in the society because it is all over around us. Other than acting as a source of entertainment, media acts as a watchdog, it controls the flow of information and also acts as an interpreter of the government’s functions and activities to the citizens (McQuail, 2005). By looking at these functions, this paper provides an argument about the positive effects of the media highlighting how they outweigh the negatives and how these roles could be improved.

Basic role of the media

The media has become a significant tool in today’s world and many people refer to it as a daily meal that is necessary for the society. Media strengthens the core values of the society by providing information concerning various aspects of the environment (Christians, 2009). It is one of the main sources of entertainment. It also serves as an education tool for the audiences by providing educative programs. People can use the traditional forms of media which are still relevant today such as the newspapers and magazines to access information. They can also use modern forms such as the television, radio and the internet to access the programs offered. It has a significant role in the social, cultural and political environment in the society due to its ability to reach a mass audience thus creating awareness. However, the media has also played a major part in undermining some of the cultural aspects that used to exist (Hallin, 2004). Politically, the media has the ability to split people’s opinions. Culturally, the media has introduced a new way of doing things as depicted in the movies such as violence and revenge. Consequently, the audience have the initiative to pick on contents that are good to them and reject those that are not good.

Flow of information

The media provides an effective flow of information to the audience. Information is a very important equipment in the development of a community. Information shapes the ideas and opinions of people in the society (Christians, 2009). This means that without this information the opinions of people will be stunted. Their thinking and development of ideas will also be limited if the information available is insufficient. However, the media seems to always provide the same kind of information concerning many aspects (Hallin, 2004). This could explain why with time, some people have become bored of watching television and reading news stories. Perhaps, media could be more effective by providing information concerning things that have a direct effect on how people live their lives. They can achieve this by providing breakthroughs in different sectors such as technology, health and other areas that can help to prepare for a better future.


The media practitioners act as interpreters of information to the public. Their collective role is to gather information and deliver the same to the public in a simple way that can be easily understood (Hallin, 2004). Just like the way a student does his or her research for a thesis by going to the library to read and gather all the information, then writes a thesis of about a thousand to two thousand words, journalists also do the same. They attend events, gatherings and other public meetings, record the speeches then writes and broadcasts stories of the same information to the public. Such stories will explain the event, provide facts and statistics in a simple way that an average person could understand. They can however improve on this role by reporting information that does not cause fear among the audience (Reinikka, 2004). This can be achieved in stories that report on war, terrorism and political controversies. At times such stories might lead to unnecessary fear among the public. The media should not take things too far when reporting about these stories instead, they should just stick to the facts and broadcast or write what will not develop fear among the audience.

Journalists also save people the need to physically attend meetings (Hallin, 2004). Imagine if each and every person would be required to attend all the public gatherings that lasts for hours and hours just to be told that the price of sugar in China has reduced or has risen. This could be a really difficult and inconvenient task. The media helps in providing a platform where people can just sit in their sofas and watch, listen to or read through reports that have been prepared by the journalists (Reinikka, 2004). In these reports, journalists answer the five W’s and one H; who, what, where, why, when and how questions, which helps the audience to understand everything about the events and other news stories. Through this, the media helps the audience to understand every detail pertaining to matters of the government in a simple way. They also help to provide updates on other sectors such as sports, business, entertainment and other areas.


The media also serves as a watchdog of the government on behalf of the public. They are not only focused on providing the latest updates but also plays a very important role in holding the government accountable (McQuail, 2005). Media helps the public to identify what the government is doing on every matter of human interest. The media oversees this role by always forcing the government to explain their verdicts especially if these verdicts affects the public. However, this function of the media is most relevant in countries and states that have a democratic form of government. Media unfolds stories that could not be heard if journalism never existed. Some government officials hate it when journalists breathe heavily down their necks and they can do anything to scare them off. However, times have change and today the press has her own freedom which is highly protected (McQuail, 2005).

The media also foresees the function of speaking for the people. In the United States of America, Freedom of the press is a very important aspect that has been offered to the journalists (Reinikka, 2004). Such type of freedom ensures that democracy is able to function properly in countries that are democratic. These type of freedom helps to protect the freedom of the media and allow the media to effectively serve the entire country. With this freedom, the media is able to effectively interact with the audience and identify their views and ideas which helps to create discussions and debates. Such debates are important in a democratic government because they create healthy challenges that helps to foster developments.

Through serving this function as a watchdog, media will help to improve the governance of a country or state especially when they monitor all the actions of the people in power. They alert the public on corruption cases that occurs within the government. Corruption is a major factor that negatively affects productivity of a country (McQuail, 2005). At times, they not only report about the negatives done by the government without gathering all the facts but also report on good things that went wrong and also state where it all went wrong. In such a country or state, the media is significant in monitoring such activities done by those in power, then delivering accurate information to the public (Christians, 2009). This has been proved to be an effective check on the government officials because such information raises ideas and opinions on who to vote for and who not to vote for come the general elections.

Media in advertisements

Media has a lot of influence on many things in the society as can be seen in advertisements. A lot of people rely on the information from the media to make decisions (McQuail, 2005). These decisions could be on food, clothing and many other activities. Wrong and inaccurate information could lead them into making wrong decisions while the right information will lead them to make the right decisions especially when purchasing products. Advertisements help consumers to identify and purchase quality products. However, wrong and inaccurate information will lead them to purchase substandard products (Pasti, 2007). This indicates that the media plays a very important role in influencing the decisions of consumers in terms of what they should eat, dress and even what events to attend. Journalists have a responsibility to provide the right information that is not harmful to the audience but useful.

Impact of media on body impressions

The media also plays an important role in creating perfect body impressions for the audience. For example, the media has created impressions on how an attractive body should look like through advertisements and other programs (Pasti, 2007). It has portrayed attractiveness to be based on the structure of bodies, the choice of outfits and how to dress. Well-built men and perfect shaped women have been used as cover girls and men respectively for magazines to create an appeal to the audience. They also influence the audience’s choice of color by stating which colors are the best and how to combine them through fashion shows, blogs and other programs. This enables the audience to make the right choices on what to wear in an appropriate way. They also broadcast and publish useful information concerning weight loss and how to keep fit, something that has proved to be beneficial for the audience. (McQuail, 2005).


Media is a very important tool because it shapes the society. It provides entertainment, education and also influences the society in many ways. It ensures that there is flow of information in the society by gathering facts and statistics then disseminates the same to the audience. The media also act as an interpreter of the government functions to the public where it helps to break down information and report in a simple way that can be easily understood. Notably, the media serves as a watchdog where it holds the government accountable to its actions. It also plays a significant role in persuading consumers to buy certain products through advertisements therefore influencing their decisions. Other than that, it is useful in creating body impressions by providing advice on the best ways to reduce and maintain body weight. It is important for journalists to be responsible when providing information to the public. They need to gather all the facts and focus on the truth because it is their responsibility. Consumers also have a responsibility of choosing media content that is useful to them.


Christians, C., Nordenstreng, K. & White, R. (2009). Normative Theories of the Media: Journalism in Democratic Societies. Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press.

Hallin, D., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

McQuail, D. (2005). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. 5th Edition. London: Sage.

Pasti, S. (2007). The Changing Profession of a Journalists in Russia. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

Reinikka, R., & Svensson, J. (2004). The Power of Information: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign to Reduce Capture. Working Paper 3239, World Bank, Washington D.C.



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The effect of enzymes in sub culturing of adherent cells

Title: The effect of enzymes in sub culturing of adherent cells

Aim: To assess how trypsin affects adhering of cells in sub culture


Cell culture is a fundamental practice in biological research. It refers to the process by which prokaryotic, eukaryotic animal and plant cells are grown in vitro under maintained conditions (Schillberg et al., 2013). The maintenance of cells in vitro is complicated in that as they continue to multiply, they exhaust the nutrients in the media. Sub culturing is done to prevent dying of cells (Bhasin et al., 2013).There has been various discoveries in cell culture studies. The first development was the use of antibiotics to inhibit cell growth. The other major discovery was the use of trypsin to remove adherent cells. Today, chemically defined culture medium can be used in such experiments. For the cells to be effectively sub cultured, they have to be put into suspension, an aspect which only works well in presence of enzymes such as trypsin which prevents the cells from sticking to the glass surface. EDTA is a good chelating agent and does not result in the death of cells even if exposed for a longer period of time (Tice et al., 2000). The use of trypsin in sub culturing of cells is a precise method of preventing cell death in vitro.

This method is applicable in cell and tissue culture procedures especially when it is necessary to transfer cells from one vessel to another. Studies in cell biology, the interactions between the disease causing organisms and the host cells, toxicity testing of drugs and cancer research studies are all important research areas that depend on this technology. Previous studies have been conducted in virology and genetic engineering in which sub culturing has been essential (Bhasin et al., 2013). Studies in stem cell research has been done with attempts to grow cells to be used in therapy (Cooper et al., 2013). Research involving cells of animals and their response to other organisms is very necessary for studies in medicine as well agriculture. Drug manufacturing companies also depend on this information to predict the behavious of host cells in the presence of manufactured drugs. This study was done to show the effect of trypsin in sub culturing of cells.

Materials and Method


  • PBS
  • Porcine Trypsin 2mM EDTA (TE)
  • 2mMEDTA (E)
  • Pipettes and Pipetters CHO-K1 cells
  • Non Sterile and sterile tips


All the cells were kept under PBS media to prevent them from dying.

  1. All the materials which were to come into contact with the cells were pre warmed at 37oC
  2. The work area was aseptically prepared
  3. Cells were removed from the media
  4. The cells were washed twice with PBS by adding enough PBS to cover the cells and shaking the beaker gently. The waste was removed and the cleaning process repeated.
  5. About 250μl of EDTA was added to one set and the same amount of Trypsin EDTA added to another set of the experiment
  6. The set up was incubated at room temperature
  7. Cell suspension was checked after 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results were as recorded in the table below.


The results of the experiment were as in the table below showing the number of floating cells over period time

Table 1: The number of floating cells over period time for the treatment A,B and C.



Treatment A


Treatment B


Treatment C


0 0% 0% 0%
2 30% 6% 0%
6 70% 10% 0%
10 85% 13% 0%
20 90% 15% 0%
25 100% 20% 0%

(TA) is Trypsin- EDTA / (TB) is EDTA / (TC) is control

From the table we see that the cells completely dissociate and quickly get smaller and start to constrict and has its final shape (round and fully floating and stick to each other as group) in treatment A at 25 min, while treatment B it took very long time to dissociate and it was very slowly. This suggests that the presence of trypsin in treatment A makes the cells to dissociate and move faster. There is increased attraction between the cells than between the cells and the vessel.


The experiment was set up to show the effect of trypsin and EDTA in the sub culturing of cells. From the results, it can be seen that in treatment A where there was both trypsin and EDTA, the movement of cells was very first. This is because trypsin breaks down the proteins which enable the cells to adhere to the vessel. Enzymes work best at optimum temperature of 37oC. Since the samples are incubated at the optimum temperature, enzyme trypsin will act on the surface of the cells breaking the proteins responsible for binding then to the vessel. The cells which have been subjected to this treatment appear rounded due to the effect of trypsin. EDTA on the other hand promotes cell to cell adhesion. This is the reason for fast movement of cells in treatment A where there is both trypsin and EDTA. Since the forces of attraction between the cells and the vessel are broken by trypsin and the adhesive forces between the cells are enhanced by EDTA, treatment A results to cells which appear round and sticking to each other. As time increases, trypsin continues to act on the cells making them smaller and constricted. Overexposure of the cells to trypsin can kill the cells.

On the other hand for treatment B where there is only EDTA, the forces of attraction between cells are enhanced while those of attraction between cells and the vessel are still strong. This makes movement very difficult hence the cells take more time to move out of the vessel. This is why only a smaller percentage (20%) of the cells had dissociated after 25 minutes. The cells take more time to do this because EDTA increase the adhesive forces between cells. Without trypsin in the treatment, the cells will still be sticking to the vessel since the cohesive forces are still very strong. Treatment A with both trypsin and EDTA is better in sub culturing of cells than EDTA alone.


In conclusion many cell biology studies involve sub culturing of cells. The use of trypsin EDTA and EDTA has been in practice depending on the desired outcome. Trypsin and EDTA combination is preferred where quick and robust results are desired. But care must be taken not to overexpose the cells to trypsin since it can kill the cells over long exposure. EDTA alone takes a longer time for cell dissociation but cannot harm the cells even if exposed for a longer period of time.


Schillberg, S., Raven, N., Fischer, R., M Twyman, R., & Schiermeyer, A. (2013). Molecular farming of pharmaceutical proteins using plant suspension cell and tissue cultures. Current pharmaceutical design19(31), 5531-5542.

Bhasin, A., Srivastava, M. P., Mohanty, S., Bhatia, R., Kumaran, S. S., & Bose, S. (2013). Stem cell therapy: a clinical trial of stroke. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery115(7), 1003-1008.

Cooper, A., García, M., Petrovas, C., Yamamoto, T., Koup, R. A., & Nabel, G. J. (2013). HIV-1 causes CD4 cell death through DNA-dependent protein kinase during viral integration. Nature498(7454), 376-379.

Tice, R. R., Agurell, E., Anderson, D., Burlinson, B., Hartmann, A., Kobayashi, H., … & Sasaki, Y. F. (2000). Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis35(3), 206-221.



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Does education foster individual autonomy and critical inquiry

Does education foster individual autonomy and critical inquiry or is it more accurately viewed as part of a system of social control? Discuss, with reference to Bowles and Gintis’ concept of the “hidden curriculum”, and Gramsci’s concept of hegemony

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Police Brutality



Police brutality refers to the acts of misconduct of police officers on civilians (Weitzer, 2002). The acts of misconduct may include racial profiling, false arrest, political repression, sexual abuse, surveillance abuse or a combination of these acts (Lawrence, 2000).  These are illegal acts but usually performed under pretence of law enforcement. It has been existing since time immemorial though varied in levels for different countries and places. But what can cause police brutality? What can make the police who are meant to protect civilians against harm to turn out to harm the very people they are supposed to protect? Who are the major players in police brutality cases? How best can the problem be addressed? This exploratory essay seeks to explore police brutality.

The main actors in police brutality are the police themselves. They have clear guidelines on how to deal with situations that they come across. Both the civilians and the police know very well that the police should follow the use of force continuum. This is a scale that indicates the level of force to be used depending on the situation in order to help the police officers keep the country safe and protect the rights of the citizens. There are situations where mere presence of the police can restore calmness. There are situations that would demand verbalization from the use of normal talking tones to commanding police orders. It continues to increase to empty hand control, less lethal force and to lethal force.

There are situations when police come into the scene and start to club people indiscriminately even without exploring the other options which are less harmful to the civilian. For example, a report from Ohio indicated that handcuffed teenagers are beaten, unarmed people are shot in their cars, police officers firing guns carelessly in busy streets, mentally ill patients are treated with cruelty yet the supervisors are refusing to acknowledge that there is police brutality, leave alone trying to improve the situation. What then should the supervisors consider as police brutality?

Certain situations are beyond comparison. For example, on November 22nd 2013 a twelve year old African American boy was wielding a toy gun and playing in the field with others was shot dead by the police. The Director of Justice of the USA department of Justice has conducted investigations and revealed that police brutality is not only a reality but a major problem that needs to be dealt with. But who will change the attitude of the police? Who will reverse their cruel tactics? Who will let the police know that restraint and accountability always protect the police as well as civilians? The supervisors are hands off, and have failed to realize how important this aspect is.

The so much talked about racial discrimination has been seen in the way white police deal with the African Americans or the black race in general has raised more questions than answers. In 2015, 102 un armed black people were killed by the police. Even though the population of the blacks is only 13%, the number of black people killed by the police was 37% of the total unarmed people killed by the police. Of the 102 unarmed people killed by the police, only 10 cases had the responsible officers charged in courts and only 2 cases resulted to convictions of the involved officers (Williams, 2015).

The above statistics indicate that the actors in the police brutality cases extend from the police, to supervisors and to the department of justice. But why should they be more careless on the black people? Are all the officers involved in these acts white or are some of them black? Why should there be such as open discrimination when equality should be exercised among the citizens? There are many cases of police bruitality that go unreported and the officers involved in the crime remain in the service to cause more trouble to the citizens. Is there anything that can be done to restore order in the police force to help them realize that every citizen has the right to protection and freedom and a right to life?

Police brutality has been fought since time immemorial. Martin Luther is reported to have said this “that the law cannot make you love me but it can prevent someone from lynching me”. He reiterated that he was looking forward to a day when the police will work for the good of the white and the black in the same way and protect them equally. Sadly enough, two years later after saying these words, he was killed by a bullet. Human rights groups have been in the fore front of fighting police brutality but the problem still persists. Who then will rescue the people from the problem of police brutality?

Are there countries where there is no police brutality? Are there places where the police stick to their use of force continuum? Is it possible for the police to conduct their duties and enforce the law without causing unnecessary harm to the civilians. There are various laws and policies that protect the civilians from excessive use of force by the police virtually in all countries. But why are the regulations so ineffective in America?

In Britain and Canada, there is very low police brutality. In Canada for example, from 1999 t0 2009 a period of 10 years, only 12 cases of use of fire am by the police was reported. In Britain they were 51 cases for a period of 10 years between 2003 and 2013. In Japan, it was reported that police hardly use their firearms and the last time this happened was in 2012 (Sera, 2015). This is due to the rigorous training that the police officers under go. They are trained on how to explore alternatives to pulling the trigger. As a result, there is hardly any brutality reported since the use of guns or lethal force comes in when all the other options have failed. Now that there are countries which have successfully reduced or managed police bruitality, are these examples worth emulating? Can the USA department of justice and the department of homeland security ensure that police bruitality is reduced t zero?

The main question that will go unanswered here is whether the US government lacks the resources to conduct training for the police officers or there is some other aspects to brutality other than training. The police officers undergo very rigorous training and have the alternative means of dealing with crime other than just shooting suspected criminals who turn out to be very innocent civilians. Why do the police officers deliberately ignore the alternatives if they are at their disposal? Why are they trigger happy? What could be the driving force towards police brutality? Why has the department of justice failed to deal with the issue successfully?

There are various factors contributing to police brutality in the USA. The complex racial structure and the gun ownership policies. There are racial tensions that constantly emerge among the Americans. The African Americans, the Hispanics, the Whites all look at each other with suspicion and tension. This has escalated the police brutality. Guns in America are highly ubiquitous. It is like everyone has a gun. So for the police officers to execute their duties effectively with restraint becomes difficult. Mere suspicion that someone has a gun can make them shoot first because if given opportunity whoever pulls the trigger first is the winner where guns are involved. It is therefore necessary to look at all the aspects of police brutality including the gun ownership policies.

Police brutality is a major subject in the current campaign in the US presidential race. The citizens are keen to know what the candidates are planning to do to end police brutality. Each of the candidates have different opinion on the subject. How much this will influence the voting pattern only remains to be seen after the election date. With all the previous administrators, there had been challenges in dealing with police brutality especially racial profiling and indiscriminate shooting of the blacks.

In conclusion, police brutality remains a controversial issue in many countries. Various administrators have denied the prevalence of police brutality. Studies and reports have indicated that there is too much police brutality. The legal justice system also seems to be undermined by the fact that the civilians who have been brutally handled by the police have not got justice. The police involved in the brutal activities are not being charged as should be the case. Combating police brutality requires proper legislation, functional follow up, community involvement and political good will to end the inhumane practice that is undermining human dignity.


Sera Miller (2015). In Many Countries, Police Rarely Use Their Guns. Here’s Why

Weitzer, R. (2002). Incidents of police misconduct and public opinion. Journal of criminal justice30(5), 397-408.

Lawrence, R. G. (2000). The politics of force: Media and the construction of police brutality. Univ of California Press.

Williams, K. (2015). Our enemies in blue: Police and power in America. AK Press.


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The concept of clean environment in New Zealand in the context of the role of self, encounters and citizenship.


Environment refers to the total physical surrounding of the place where we live. In New Zealand, tourism marketing strategy coined the terms clean, green and 100% pure terms with reference to their environment as a way of marketing their nation to the international community. Even though this started in the 1990s, the whole idea started during the colonial era. Interestingly, this idea that started as a myth in environmental conservation aspects of New Zealand. The whole national identity of New Zealand was shaped by this idea with poets and artists portraying the nation as a place of undisturbed beauty and purity. This paper seeks to explore the concept of clean environment in New Zealand in the context of the role of self, encounters and citizenship.

The individual person makes the society and the society make the nation. The myths of clean, green and 100% pure New Zealand changed the attitude of the individuals and the entire nation. Inventions and socio economic practices all carry out their activities with the slogan in the mind and this has yielded good results and eventually turned out to be real. Due to the attitude that the individual citizens had with their nation, the tourists who visit the nation have to follow the same example and in the end, the nation has turned out to be green and 100% pure. During tourism advertisements, all that is shown is the green clean fields which attract people to the country. As a result, the government and all the stakeholders worked towards greening their nation with agriculturalists trying to ensure that the place is truly green and clean.

The people who visit New Zealand, the institutions, employers and the government are all working towards the achievement of the status which was first stated as a myth. The nice stories told about the environment, the painted pictures all support the slogan which was stated long time ago. The nation now rides on the drive of the people to realize the clean, green and 100% pure status. Participation of all the stakeholders, the fear of the consequences, a sense of belonging, the rights and the duties of every individual enhances the clean status of the nation.

Currently, the people of New Zealand, in their homes, local community and even social networks have embraced citizenship. The nation respects the social norms and put the legal and political frameworks which have made the realization of the clean environment a reality. Even though these efforts have been put in place, the clean, green and 100% pure New Zealand remains a myth with some environmental problems still encountered. Even though it has low environmental impact, there are still a lot more that needs to be done. for example, a study in 2010 revealed that there is poor resource consumption, pollution, biodiversity loss among others.

The ‘Aotearoa’ is now a polluted land. New Zealand which was painted as pure undisturbed land now experience all forms of pollution with threats to biodiversity, genetic engineering, biodiversity, green house emission among others. To others, the slogan can maintain but to those who are inside the story is different. It is better for the government to put more focus on the self, the encounters and the citizenship so as to realize sound environmental management other than continuing to ride on the myth.

In conclusion, New Zealand is not as a clean, green and 100% pure as is painted by the artists and described by the poets. Real issues in environmental pollution exist and it is necessary for all the stakeholders to take the issues seriously and make the myth turn out to be a reality.


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Equitable Societies Development

Although globalisation has condensed states power, still nation states are capable to create more equitable societies through developing appropriate social policies. What criteria are important in developing justifiable social policy for a nation state

Equitable Societies Development


Over the years, the world has experienced radical changes that have shaped the political arena into new dimensions. Traditionally, social development was only reserved for the elites in the society, a factor that lead to development of huge gaps between the rich and the poor in many societies around the world. European nations had colonized the rest of the world in the early centuries and when the colonized states gained independence, they developed social structures and policies that were used to devolve development among the citizens (JIMENEZ, pg 3). Globalization has slowly led to condensation of state powers, which in some sense, has delayed social development to attain equitable societies. This is because the central governments have to seek approval from various stakeholders to initiate and implement social policies aimed at spearheading development. This paper seeks to explore criteria used in developing justifiable social policy for a nation.

State responsibilities in promoting social development

The authority that rules a particular country is referred to as the government. Normally, the citizens of the country elect the government officials democratically. There are three arms of government, the executive, legislature and the judiciary. All these three units must work together in cohesion to fulfill the government mandate of being responsible in promoting development political, economic and social aspects of the society. The people need to be empowered economically such that the people have decent standards of living. In regards to political aspects, the people’s democratic rights must be observed at all times. The social aspect is the most important component in the society because; it defines the relationship between the citizens (TIMONEN, pg 50). There are various issues within the social aspect that greatly affects the social welfare of the society, poverty; ethnicity, crime, illiteracy and racial discrimination are the main elements that are still continuing to delay the social development. The government and other like-minded stakeholder are joining up to try and seek solutions to the issues and hence ensuring their set the country on path of equality to all. Recently, in the US there have been increased cases of gun violence that has created fear among the citizens; people are being killed in malls and schools areas that were previously considered the safest. The question being asked is what has led to increase of gun violence? Various opinions are being raised linking the violence to racial discrimination, ethnicity and poverty. This has promoted the need to implement policies that will help curbing the suspected causes of the gun violence.

Definition of terms

Equitable societies

Studies have shown over and over again that equal societies perform better in all aspects than the society that is characterized by social inequality. Social equality is defined as a state of affairs whereby all the individuals within a specific state, society or community setting receive the same treatment in certain aspects viewed as universal (SURENDER & WALKER, pg 105). Civil rights, freedom of speech, equal access to health and education facilities, right properties and equal opportunities are the main elements that define the equality in society. Equitable societies have enforced legal requirements that demand the citizens to treat other individuals fairly without discrimination of any kind. Therefore, there is need to promote equitable societies so as to fasten development.

Social policies

Social policies are rules and regulations that are put in place to promote social wellbeing of the citizens. Social welfare gaps within the society are the main reasons why the regulations and legislations are implemented to create guideline and ethical codes on how the society members should live. The process of developing and implementing the policies is not simple because it requires bringing the majority of the policy makers on board to pass and approve the policies SURENDER & WALKER, pg 46). The executive arm of the government may lead in formulation of the policies but it has to adhere to the due procedures to get them approved. The same case applies to all other stakeholders who may wish to introduce such motions to be approved. The judiciary and the legislature arms of government are responsible for approving the motions. The judiciary may do so by making judgments and rulings on various social aspect issues.

Criteria used in developing justifiable social policy for Nation or State

Criteria are a principles or standards under which something is judged or decided. Policies are not just developed overnight; they must attain specific requirements for them to be justifiable and acceptable to the majority members of the society. In the past decades, a lot of policies have been passed by the legislature and they are currently governing the society. The judiciary is also mandated to interpret constitutional amendments with clauses concerning social welfare conflicts. The following are the criteria used to develop justifiable social policies that promotes community welfare


A campaign is defined as series of various operations that are intended in achieving particular goal or objectives. It is conducted by like- minded individuals who share a common thinking platform of how various issues should be handled within the society. It is one of the most used criteria in championing for human rights and equal treatments. Martin Luther king junior was a famous human rights activist in 1960s and he was known for campaign for end racial discrimination against people of color (WACKER & ROBERTO, pg 56). Through his campaign efforts, he gained numerous followers who shared similar opinions and eventually caught the Presidents attention who in turn started acting on enforcing the implementation of regulations that would end the racial discrimination. At the time the discrimination against the black community was a major concern among the society; various activities had stalled due to demonstrations that were being held to push the agenda. In the modern society, government agencies, civil rights groups and other stakeholders use campaigns to create awareness of various issues and hence attracting the much needed quorum to pass the motion to the next level where necessary approvals can be made. The kind of issues campaigned about must be of national importance and affecting the majority of the populations. Equality in the society is an important aspect and it is the main cause of conflicts in the society.

Judicial petitions and civil suits

Petitions are written documents signed by large masses of people demanding some form of action from the government or any other authority. Judicial petitions are formal complains addressed to the judiciary to address various concern within the society. This kind of petitions involves constitution interpretation on components that are generating conflict of interests among the society. In most cases, the government or the civil rights groups have difficulties to address various concerns affecting the welfare of the society because the constitution has no clarity on the issues. Judiciary is the arm of the government mandated to interpret the constitution and hence it has the powers of enacting policies that may lead to betterment of the society. For a very wring time in the US history, the issue of gay rights has been a source conflicts of interests with many people divided on opinions about it. Many people believe that gays are normal human beings and hence they should enjoy equal rights as the other people. On the same issue, there are group of people who believe gay marriages should be illegal because it represents unethical behaviors in the society. Mainly the religious organizations have been leading in campaigns in rebuking the gay rights societies while the gay civil rights groups were on the forefront in pushing for gay rights. A judicial petition was filed in the courts to determine the legality of the matter. Those who supported gay rights and those against were allowed to represent their views to make the process fair and justifiable. The government led by the President Obama supported the gay rights. The United States Supreme court ruled on the issues making the gay marriage legal. This policy was to be enacted by all the states that had previously refused to allow the gay marriages. Evidently, it very clear that judicial petition is an effective process of passing policies that are aimed at improving social equality. The process is time consuming because of many appeals involved but bottom line it is a platform that passes the criteria in developing justifiable social policies (MUNCK, pg 23).

Legislature acts and bills

The US Senate and Congress are the two houses of representatives that are allowed by the constitution to make new laws or amend the already existing laws to serve particular purposes. Any member of the house can introduce a motion social welfare policy motion to the floor of the house for the members to debate about it. The motion must be seconded by at least other two members for it to be justifiable and acceptable to be debated in the houses. The speaker of the house will in turn sets the date of the motion which allows the other members to familiarize themselves with the issue and consider it if it meets the national interests criteria. Normally the mover of the motion must have identified an issue within the society that is contributing negatively towards the growth and development of social status. He/she drafts a motion explaining the logical reasons behind it. Once the motion is approved for debate, it must be approved by the majority members of both houses for it to be forwarded to the president for approval. The President has the power to reject or return the bill back to the houses for either correction or additional amendments that he/she may find need to be included. The two houses, Senate and Congress have powers to nullify the motion if it doesn’t meet the national interests. The president may also introduce a motion in either of the houses via the leader of government business in the houses (HERRMANN, pg 88).

The most important aspect in using these criteria is the fact that, the mover of the motion must be able to gather enough numbers to support his/her motion in the floor of the house. Even if the motion has the best interests and lacks the numbers to make it pass through the voting in the houses, it will not become a policy. Obama care was a policy passed as act of the legislature that aimed in providing affordable health care to all Americans. Before, health was a social issue with considerable number of citizens not affording the health care services. After the bill was passed in both houses and approved by the executive, Obama care become a social policy that made all the Americans enjoy affordable health care. Currently, there have been calls to introduce a motion regulating the licensing of guns in efforts to reduce the cases of gun violence. If this motion is introduced, it will follow the same due process until is approved as a social policy regulation.


What makes a country to be a better place to stay is the social welfare policies implemented. During the colonial times, people were enslaved and others mistreated because they were not allowed to enjoy basic freedom of rights. Globalization has been an element that contributed greatly in changing of the societies and how they are being ruled. It is very hard to find states that still have retained the era of slavery; it has been a global concept that people should be free from slavery. Not all aspects of the society have been achieved, there are still those elements that the need to be worked on for the community to be equitable to all. The responsibility of enforcing policies that promote social equality and cohesion primarily lays on the government mandate. Therefore, the government officials should work around the clock to ensure that the society wellbeing is catered for and the various issues that may lead to social conflicts are identified and appropriate social policies are developed. As discussed above, the policies must attain various criteria for them to be implemented as laws that everybody recognizes. Developing nations are the worst hit by social conflicts and they are characterized by high poverty levels, lack of appropriate health care and many more issues that have delayed social development.


JIMENEZ, J. (2010). Social policy and social change: toward the creation of social and economic justice. Los Angeles, Sage.

MUNCK, R. (2005). Globalization and social exclusion: a transformationalist perspective. Bloomfield, CT, Kumarian Press.

HERRMANN, P. (2009). Social quality – looking for a global social policy [attempting an approximation to the analysis of distances of social systems]. Bremen, Europ. Hochsch.-Verl.

TIMONEN, V. (2003). Restructuring the welfare state: globalisation and social policy reform in Finland and Sweden. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pub.

SURENDER, R., & WALKER, R. (2013). Social policy in a developing world. Cheltenham, Northampton Edward Elgar.

WACKER, R. R., & ROBERTO, K. A. (2010). Aging Social Policies: an International Perspective. Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications.


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employers making their female employees work while on maternity leav

write an essay about employers making their female employees work while on maternity leave. This can be either making them work from home or making them return to the work place before the company policy allows them too. Please compare it to SHRM’s professional code of ethics. Please use Peter Block’s Flawless Consulting 3rd edition as a reference. Below is the goals and objectives.
Learning Goal:
Students will demonstrate professional behaviors consistent with a professional code of ethics for HROD practitioners.

Learning Objective:
Write an essay answering questions regarding their compliance with a professional code of ethics (e.g. SHRM and the OD Network).
Students will recognize ethical dilemmas that an HROD professional faces, evaluate alternative responses, select and defend a solution.


The working mothers

The motherhood can be seen as an exciting moment for most women as it offers a responsibility of raising a child. It also changes the perception in the society and work place and therefore requires one to have social and personal adjustment to cope with the situation. Some employed women feel insecure about their job security and leave options and often prefer working at home even when on leave to keep their jobs. There is a need to support working women since the responsibility of taking care of the child affects the woman’s working life more than the man. In some countries especially those with joint family systems, the women can leave their children to elderly so that they can work. This offers benefit for the mother to perform dual roles of motherhood and work efficiently. However, the stress loads are higher for women who stay alone and this maternity leave benefits them to raise a child before taking to day care children homes.

In the cases where a mother is forced to work at home during her maternity leave, she faces many challenges. She is stressed to prepare food the baby, wash the clothes, do house chores and look after her home simultaneously while working. The house work is still considered the woman’s domain in many societies therefore working women have higher responsibility of domestic front and work place. This can significantly affect her productivity and if not checked it can lead to errors that reduces the quality of the work done. The society’s view on the working women is changing, initially the rush of married women to work was traditionally seen as a choice between career and family. It was complained that the woman going to job early leaving their children to maid causes rise in juvenile delinquency. The enlighten woman sees the need to have social security and financial independence so as to supplement the family income.

Pregnancy and maternity

The employee should be prepared to congratulate female employee upon announcing that she is pregnant and give her ample time to prevent potential pregnancy complications. As an employer one has to know what to do regarding pregnancy and maternity leave to prevent discriminative measures that is prohibited by law. It is also vital for expectant woman to understand the statues that that provide leave benefits to new parents and pregnant women. As in this case, the female workers are working while in maternity leaving showing the ignorance of women for their rights. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) has been adopted in United States that requires all the employees to provide maternity leave for expectant women. Many countries around the world have similar law to safeguard the interest of the women. However, it is important to note that PDA does not force employers to provide paid maternity leave to women therefore one could expect that the woman on maternity leave cannot be forced to work even at their homes unlike this case.

The woman’s case is easy and can be easily handled by the employment act that protect the women against unfair dismissal if the employer terminates her job for failing to work while on leave. The women are protected against unfair treatment from their employers on the basis of their pregnancies. If the woman has been working for a long time in the same company, then she is entitled to get maternity pay. She should not be struggling to work on her leave. However, the woman is supposed to give an early notice, about 21 days before starting the leave so as to receive a letter from employer indicating when she is supposed to report back to job. All terms and conditions of employment must continue to provide job security for the woman.

SHRM’s professional code of ethics

Professional responsibility

The human resource (HR) professionals are supposed to add value to the organization by contributing to ethical success. In this case the employer is violating this principle by not advocating for engaging in activities that enhance credibility and value. Forcing women to work on leave is not right.

Ethical leadership

The HR professionals, in this case the employ is expected to be role models in maintaining highest standards of ethical conduct.

Fairness and justice

The employer is ethically responsible for promoting and nurturing justice and fairness for their organizations and all employees. The organization provides for maternity leave for women; however the employer is violating this rule by forcing women work at home.

Conflict of interest

A high level of trust must be maintained with stakeholders including workers, shareholders and the management. According to this code of conduct, the employer is expected to protect the interest of the shareholders by not giving them work on their leave. The employer lacks professional integrity that is fundamental for ensuring that one does not engages in activities that create conflict of interest.

Professional development

The professionals must strive to meet the highest standards of competence and continually commit to improve competencies in the organization.

Pregnancy discrimination

Any form of discrimination against women is prohibited by law. The PDA is clear on employee-employer relationship and it prohibits against any form of discrimination on applicants and employees on the basis of childbirth, pregnancy or related medical conditions. The employers who have fifteen or more employees must comply with the civil rights act. Under the law, the employer cannot deny job or promotion to a woman who is pregnant or has aborted. Neither can employer fires a woman because she is pregnant. The employer is required to offer maternity leave; however, a woman cannot be forced to maternity leave as long as she is still capable of doing her job.

The law requires employers to treat pregnant employees equally to other employees on the basis of their inability or ability to work. The employer therefore has to provide similar conditions to expectant woman as to other employees who are unable to work. A good example is a factory sector that requires lifting of some heavy materials. In this case, the employer is expected to provide some arrangement to expectant women not to do laborious work just as an employee with a back problem is relieved from heavy duties. This woman should have been given opportunity to finish her maternity leave or be allowed upon her wish to continue working but on light-duty positions even if they are working from home.

However, the employer has the right to demand doctor’s note before allowing her to collect benefits or go for maternity leave just as it is applied to other workers who are sick. There are various provisions under PDA that protect the woman against discrimination during her pregnancy. In this case, this employer risks fighting a losing battle if a law suit is brought to court by the women. Charges of discrimination on the basis of pregnancy and related condition may bring great penalties to employer unless the reasons for forcing her to work at home are not related to her pregnancy. This is difficult case since the woman is already under maternity leave and she is still forced to work.

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

When a worker becomes pregnant then under the federal FMLA, her employer must consider the right of the woman to take leave. The eligible employees for FMLA leave are allowed to take up to twelve weeks of unpaid leave while their job is still protected no enable them leave for birth and take care of the child. However, the woman must have worked in the company for more than one year (12 months). Also the employers with more than fifty employees must comply with this act. FMLA act also provides for the new parents both mother and father to take a leave any time within twelve months after child arrival but must resume work before the end of the 12-month period.

Ethical dilemmas

This case shows the violation of core principle of SHRM code of ethical and professional standards in human resource management. To build credibility and respect, the employers are supposed to respect their employees. These codes are intended to serve in achieving organizational goals and objectives. The employer is facing problems of violating code of conduct. Attack has been mentioned by Peter Block as one form of resistance that employers face. Angry words and finger pointing cannot solve the situation (Block, 2011). The effective response is to offer kind response to employer and I would advise/her to consider following the rules of the organization and state laws regarding pregnancy and maternity leave. In this case also the women are supposed to air their forces. Keeping quit means they will not get their right to maternity leave without work.

Confusion is also experienced by both the women and the employer as per Peter Block regarding the best course of action. The silence is reported to be the worst in resolving the problem. The women are passive and are not posting any challenge or resistance to violation of their rights by their employer. In fact, Peter Block mentioned that some of the client may not take seriously the suggestions that are intended to help them. The employer needs to be told to reconsider his/her actions in relation to core principle of professional responsibility. The employer should work in consistent values of profession to prevent legal actions against their organizations. The principle of professional responsibility further stipulates that the employers should comply with the law.

To deal with this dilemma the employer should accept his/her responsibility of advocating appropriate use and appreciation of employees. High level of performance, service and social responsibility cannot be achieved without commitment of the employers. Peter Block further recognizes moralizing attitude as a setback in accomplishing change to right actions and positions. Moralizing is seen as a way of defending against the reality (Block, 2011). The employer knows that the women should not be forced to work on leave but still violate rules. On the other hand, the women also know that they should not be forced to work. The ethical leadership is lacking on the part of the employer. Moralizing creates uncomfortable feeling for the women to take uncomfortable action against the employer. The employer should set standards and be example to other or else risk facing legal action. The only way of earning individual respect and increase their credibility with employees is to do the right thing and stop violating women’s rights.

Compliance is the most difficult form of resistance to both the employer and employee as per the Peter Block. The employer and women after knowing the right thing faces difficulty in putting the words to action. Both partners have reservations about given course of action but I believe doing the right thing frees one’s conscience. The right course of actions promotes justice and fairness for women employees within the organization. Respecting intrinsic worth of female employees means respecting their rights to have maternal leave free of any office work. Treating people with respect, compassion and dignity does not involve forcing them to work when they are not supposed to. Harassment, unlawful discrimination and intimidation violate the principle of fairness and justice that requires personal decisions and the decision made by organization to be legal and ethical.

Maintaining control has been proposed to be the most valuable asset to the organization. Maintaining control is vital for fostering productivity and performance within an organization. The control dictates the authority and responsibility of employers to value their workers. To prevent conflict of interest, the employer has to organizational policies that have been put in place to unify course of actions in all emerging issues. The core principle of conflict of interest is meant to prevent the employers from using their position for financial, material or personal gain. The principle advocates for the obligation of employers to recognize and identify potential source of conflict and disclose them to relevant stakeholders. The employer can raise the issue of forcing women against the organizational policy to the management to seek for corrective measures.


Block, P. (2011). Flawless consulting: A guide to getting your expertise used. John Wiley & Sons.

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